Discussion on several key issues of the hottest ma

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Discussion on several key issues of manufacturing informatization

after more than ten years of development, the informatization of manufacturing industry has made great progress, especially in the past five years, the development is particularly rapid, new concepts continue to appear, and new software products continue to be applied in enterprises. Manufacturing enterprise informatization is a large system engineering, including CAD technology, CAPP technology, PDM technology, ERP technology. There are both pure technology and management. Combined with the practical experience of informatization in hundreds of enterprises in the past six years, the author expounds several key links and problems that need to be clearly considered in the informatization of manufacturing industry from the perspective of engineering application, comparing with each stage of informatization work. In order to help the enterprises that are implementing and will implement enterprise informatization

the flow chart of data describes the information flow mode of the whole system from CAD to ERP. PDM manages the product drawings generated by CAD, extracts the information of title block and parts list from CAD drawings, and generates the product structure tree, which is sorted and imported into the PDM system. For 3D CAD, the product structure tree is generated by reading the structural data recorded in the drawing file

PDM system is used to maintain the product structure information, version information, change management of data version, workflow management of product data, query management of drawings and documents, etc. Here PDM serves as a management platform for product development

the process department organizes the production process preparation and production preparation of products, and the PDM of the design department is required to provide product structure information and product drawing information. Through the process management system, the process department organizes the preparation of the process and the organization of the process route, and summarizes and generates various reports required by the production line, such as: product details and process route table, material quota list, man hour quota table, and realizes effective authority management of process information, process data change management, etc

e including Moscow, Leningrad and Voronezh RP is the production management platform. Its technical data comes from the front-end technical department. It reads pbom and various summary reports from the process management system to carry out workshop management, production management, etc

experience and lessons of CAD software selection

in the machinery manufacturing industry, CAD is a basic tool and a bearing tool for enterprise drawing data. The selection of CAD is a basic and key work for enterprises. A large number of drawings of enterprises are attached to this tool. The wrong choice of the source will bring many hidden dangers to the subsequent development of enterprises

cad ignored the basic requirement of stability because it overemphasized function and price in the early selection, which brought a lot of trouble to enterprises. During the "drawing board rejection" project during the Ninth Five Year Plan period, dozens of CAD competed in the market, and many new concepts emerged. These software included secondary development and independent copyright. After use, some software did add many new functions, but at the same time, with a large number of patches, the software stability was relatively poor. Enterprises indirectly became the testing department of software companies, and even many companies disappeared later, Enterprises have made a large number of drawings with this software, and now they have lost the technical support of the software company, and they can't upgrade the version according to the development of CAD technology, which makes many enterprises suffer a lot of losses. At the same time, with the gradual deepening of enterprise informatization, enterprises need to introduce CAPP and PDM to meet the needs of the enterprise level. Due to the non mainstream CAD and the lack of corresponding technical support of these enterprises, Capp/pdm software suppliers are difficult to ensure the correct integration with the CAD drawings of these enterprises. Even the mainstream CAD secondary development software has the same fate - who knows what they have modified? There is no guarantee that the detailed information of CAD drawings and the correct browsing of drawings

most of the early domestic software companies had institutional problems. From the perspective of technology, they were high-tech IT companies, but the system was the affiliated companies of state-owned education departments or research institutions with unclear property rights, which made it impossible for these companies to do a lot, and it was impossible for their own CAD companies to form industry standards. Choosing a CAD software depends on its company, and the key to a company depends on its system

two dimensional CAD has almost become popular in enterprises, but many enterprises using pirated AutoCAD began to worry about being hit by Autodesk and didn't want to spend money. Now they began to think about finding a cheap substitute. They wishfully believed that such a product would be 100% compatible with their own AutoCAD. Including file format and operation habits

3D CAD is an application trend, which will be gradually popularized in enterprises. The way of product design in enterprises will also change to use 3D software modeling first, and then produce 2D drawings to guide production. 3D CAD software technology is much more advanced than 2D CAD, involving complex mathematical models and relatively advanced graphics theory. The threshold is relatively high. It is an inevitable trend for 3D software to be widely promoted in enterprises. Whether it is high, medium or low-grade 3D CAD, choosing a mainstream and popular CAD is a correct practice

re understand CAPP system

first, let's take a look at the needs of enterprises for CAPP

it should be able to card, draw or paste process diagrams, and summarize and generate various reports, such as tooling details, process route table, material quota summary, etc. in order to ensure the correctness and queryability of data, these report information should be reflected in the form of database

this CAPP system should be able to inherit the product structure relationship tree of the product design department, and modify the process product structure tree. This system should also have a complete authority control system, including process management, 818 extruders exported in October, and the functional root strength of version management is high, which can manage the borrowing of process cards, Be able to manage changes and trace traceability

current status of CAPP software

CAPP has developed rapidly in recent years, from the earliest simple intelligent tool development and research, to the later instrumental CAPP software, and then to the recent introduction of CAPP with management ideas by several companies

tooled CAPP can meet the functions of enterprise card and information summary, but it does not have the functions of process management such as permission, version, process, etc. in order to realize the management of process information, a PDM is usually attached to deal with it. This method is generally difficult to meet the requirements of enterprises, because the functions of PDM in the market, whether domestic or foreign, are mainly done around product development management, If the process file is packaged as CAD, all kinds of data summarization will not be realized. The process file itself is a complex data structure relationship. Putting CAPP into PDM platform as a tool software is like putting a truck as a part on a car

fortunately, several famous CAPP system suppliers in China are aware of this problem. For example, Kaimu, Tianhe and Jinye of West University of technology have launched CAPP systems that integrate PDM ideas. And the function is constantly improving, which is a very good direction and the right direction

many manufacturing enterprises are influenced by the idea that CAPP is a tool software in the past. When purchasing capp/pdm software, they always rigidly require the PDM of software suppliers to manage CAPP. Originally, CAPP and PDM should be brothers, not parents and sons. Unless after several years, CAPP/pdm/erp are integrated into one software and unified in one database platform, this problem does not exist, At present, some companies have begun to study the feasibility of this scheme, but it still takes a long time to be practical

the problem of information integration

since the software integrating capp/pdm/erp has not appeared, manufacturing enterprises must face the problem of information integration when implementing informatization

the integration of information is mainly reflected in three places: the integration of CAD and PDM; Integration of PDM and CAPP; Integration of CAPP and ERP

integration of CAD and PDM: in order to extract data from CAD, PDM manufacturers handle this work by developing a special tool. Several well-known PDM manufacturers in China, such as intime, Kaimu, Exeter and Beihang Haier, have such special tools to extract CAD data, and automatically sort out and generate product structure relationship tree after extraction. However, due to the history of CAD, the types and versions of CAD vary greatly, and the parts list and title block of most software are not standard data records, but graphics composed of lines and words. It is unimaginable for PDM manufacturers to support the information extraction of these CAD, which is also the reason why many foreign high-end PDM do not support the automatic extraction of two-dimensional CAD information, The integration of CAD and PDM is the business of both enterprises and software companies

There are mainly two ways to integrate PDM and CAPP information: control integration and intermediate file integration

the way of control integration is to use CAPP to directly call the control of PDM to download product data; In the actual project implementation, this method gives people the feeling of realizing seamless integration, but the actual application effect is not very good. Originally, it is two different software, so it is necessary to do some development to "weld" together, which will certainly greatly reduce the enforceability and maintainability of the software. Due to the secondary integrated development specially done for the enterprise, it is impossible to upgrade CAPP smoothly with a new version in the future. Enterprises are not recommended to adopt this method

integration method of intermediate files: PDM exports the data required by ERP in a data format acceptable to CAPP, and then the CAPP system imports the data to get the data it needs. This is also a basic requirement for PDM and CAPP, that is, the former supports the export of product data, and the latter supports the import of product data

the integration of PDM and CAPP also involves another problem. For a product structure tree that has been transferred in the past, local changes have been made. At this time, it is necessary to notify CAPP accordingly for processing. This change generally involves three situations: adding parts, reducing parts, and modifying parts. In order to ensure the unity of the upper and lower data, it needs to be ensured through the system. First, the design department issues the change notice, and then the process department first judges the changes caused by the change and considers whether there will be other joint and several problems, and then determines how to deal with it according to the requirements of the notice and change the structure

The integration of CAPP and ERP mainly deals with two problems: first, provide the required data in the format required by ERP, which data are new, which data are removed, and which data are changed. Second, there is no code for materials and other information in CAPP, but in ERP, each material is uniquely identified by code. CAPP has no way to generate its own code out of nothing. ERP needs to process it after receiving the data to get the corresponding code, or it is mandatory to add material code to CAPP card in the early stage

from the above integration discussion, we can feel that coding is very important in enterprise informatization

in order to facilitate management, all materials in an enterprise should be given a unique identifier

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