The status of the nuclear industry in this country

2022-07-29
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The status of the nuclear industry in this country has never changed The nuclear industry is regarded by Russia as a national high-tech industry and strategic core force. Its strategic position and positioning have never changed in the past 70 years. It has always been a sharp and important tool to maximize national interests

2. Through institutional reform, the Russian nuclear industry has established a new mode of government enterprise integration and cluster operation, focusing on defense orders and other large sectors, supplemented by diversified development, to build a global comprehensive nuclear energy group

3. The development direction of Russian nuclear energy has made it clear that the core goal is to take a step ahead in technology and lead the development of the international market. Russia's State Atomic Energy Group (Rosatom) has gathered its own and advantageous resources of various scientific research institutes to promote the in-depth research and development of cutting-edge high technology and the integrated development of scientific research and industry

4. Russia has formulated a domestic chess game, focusing on nuclear energy cooperation, close coordination of the whole industry chain, and a global layout framework. Through the combination of unique mature technologies, a package solution for the whole industry chain, export credit and other models, we have achieved great success in the layout of the overseas nuclear power market. By october2018, Rosatom's overseas nuclear power order projects had reached 36 units in 12 countries, and the number of orders accounted for more than 50% of the international market share

5. Aiming at the sustainable development of nuclear power and the closed cycle of nuclear fuel, Russia launched the national major nuclear energy special "breakthrough" scientific and technological innovation plan, and promoted the "dual" development strategy. At present, the commercial orders in Russia's international market are mainly VVER units with different powers. In the future, it will transition to the coexistence of thermal neutron reactor and fast neutron reactor. With the acceleration of fast reactor commercialization, Russian nuclear power technology has shown a diversified development trend

Russia is a major energy producer and exporter in the world. It is also China's largest source of crude oil imports and an extremely important energy trade partner. Russia has always led the world in nuclear energy technology. The Russian government pointed out that nuclear energy is a national high-tech industry, which meets the highest requirements of ecological security and industrial security, and will continue to expand project exports. Russia hopes to rely on its mature nuclear power technology to provide energy solutions for many countries around the world, drive the export of the whole industrial chain such as equipment, and maximize its own interests

institutional reform and the establishment of a new mode of government enterprise integration and cluster operation

the nuclear industry is the guarantee for Russia's status as a nuclear power, national security and national economic development. As a national strategic core force, the development of nuclear energy has been incorporated into Russia's national security, economic development and energy security strategies. The strategic position and orientation of Russia's nuclear industry has never changed. After more than 70 years of development, a complete industrial system has been formed, with more than 1000 enterprises and scientific research institutions, and about 280000 employees. The development direction of Russian nuclear energy has made it clear that the core goal is to take technology leadership and lead the development of the international market, integrate Russian nuclear energy technology into the international market, and rely on the international market for sustainable development. The implementation of the leading goal of Russian nuclear energy technology is mainly to take independent originality and scientific and technological innovation as the core, gather the advantageous resources of the Russian National Atomic Energy Group (Rosatom) and various scientific research institutes, promote the in-depth research and development of cutting-edge high-tech technologies such as nuclear weapons, nuclear powered ships and nuclear power, and take the market as the guide to the integrated development of scientific research and industry

in december2007, Rosatom was restructured from the National Atomic Energy Agency, a government agency, into a national enterprise group. At the same time, the measurement control of outer diameter comprehensively reflects the accuracy and level of the above control and the government function. The power core of the enterprise group includes the Regulatory Commission and the general manager, both of which are appointed by the president. The general manager responsibility system was implemented, and the internal operation was carried out in a plate manner. The nuclear weapons complex and nuclear and radiation, nuclear machinery, nuclear power, fuel, uranium resources, nuclear power engineering, uranium resources and technology export, overseas sector, nuclear medicine, scientific and technological innovation, nuclear powered ships and other sectors were established. In order to ensure the sustainable development goal in this field, in addition to meeting the national defense orders and other professional main businesses, actively promote diversified development, lay out renewable energy, energy storage, new materials, digitalization, smart city, supercomputer, laser, machinery equipment manufacturing in oil and gas fields, Arctic ocean route transportation and other industries, and build a global comprehensive nuclear industrial energy group

fully compete in the international market

rosatom group has defined the strategic development goals of international market development and industry leadership in the field of nuclear energy at the beginning of its establishment, and plans to strive to bring $3.5 billion in foreign exchange revenue to Russia every year through the export of high-tech products and services

at present, Russia's nuclear energy strategy has been defined as three core directions: first, to increase international market share and become a leader in the world nuclear energy market; Second, reduce costs and process transformation to create the most competitive products; Third, give full play to the knowledge and technology of civil nuclear energy projects and develop new products required by domestic and international markets

Leaders of the two countries can conduct in-depth exchanges on this.

around the three core goals, Russia has developed a game of chess in China, focusing on nuclear energy cooperation, close cooperation in the whole industry chain, and a global layout framework: from the government level, the decision-making of the platform has been freed from the cumbersome and inefficient aspects of traditional enterprises. The president and the prime minister have personally promoted it, and various government departments have supported and cooperated to protect the development of overseas markets through politics and diplomacy; At the enterprise level, the group commands and coordinates specific businesses in a unified manner, and each sector has a clear division of labor to work together externally to form synergy. Adopt the business combination mode of government credit, EPC, boo, joint venture, whole industry chain and full life service

Russia has targeted emerging markets in Asia, Latin America, Africa and some European countries through a combination of unique mature technologies, a package solution for the whole industry chain, export credit and other modes, and has achieved great success in the layout of overseas nuclear power markets. By October, 2018, Rosatom had 25 overseas projects under construction and 36 overseas nuclear power order projects in 12 countries. Among them, the number of orders accounts for more than 50% of the international market share, and the cumulative amount of 10-year orders is more than 133billion US dollars, leading all competitors

currently, Russia has signed nuclear power projects mainly in China, Iran, India, Turkey, Belarus, Finland, Hungary, Bangladesh, Jordan, Egypt and other countries. Russia has signed various cooperation agreements with Uzbekistan, Bolivia, Ethiopia, Zambia and other countries, and has discussed deepening nuclear power cooperation with Serbia, Tajikistan, Bulgaria, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, South Africa, Japan and other countries

steadily promote the construction of domestic nuclear power projects

Russia currently has 10 nuclear power plants, 35 units in operation, including 18 VVER units, 15 graphite reactors and 2 fast neutron reactors. The total installed capacity of nuclear power is 27.9gw, accounting for 18.9% of the total domestic power generation. In 2017, Russia's nuclear power generation was nearly 2030 billion kwh, a record. In addition, another 6 units are under construction. The first floating reactor in Russia has been loaded and is planned to be put into operation by the end of 2019. According to Russia's national power planning, by 2030, nuclear power generation will not be less than 18%. It is planned to build 22 new units and decommission 21 units in operation

based on the factors such as the retirement and replacement of old units, the weaker than expected domestic power demand and the construction of new generation demonstration reactor units, Russia will focus on developing the international market, but China is also steadily promoting the construction of vver-1200 and vver-toi new generation units. On February 27, 2017, Russia put into operation the world's first vver-1200 unit; On april29,2018, Russia started the construction of the world's first vver-toi unit, and plans to build this type of unit on a large scale to replace the graphite pile that will be decommissioned in China. In addition, Russia has decided to build a small reactor demonstration reactor and plans to determine the site in 2019

promote the "breakthrough" innovation plan

in 2010, Russia launched the "breakthrough" scientific and technological innovation plan for major national nuclear energy projects, and concentrated the elite forces of various scientific research institutions to research and develop projects such as sodium cooled, lead cooled, lead bismuth fast reactors, MOX fuel, spent fuel treatment and disposal with fast reactors as the carrier, striving to achieve the sustainable development of nuclear power and the goal of closed cycle of nuclear fuel

in terms of fast reactor, Russian BN-800 unit was put into operation in december2015 and is now loaded with 20% MOX fuel; Bn-1200 reactor is the latest large-scale commercial fast reactor technology proposed by Russia. Now the preliminary design and overall design have been completed, and the relevant test verification has been completed; The construction of brest-od-300 lead cooled test demonstration fast reactor built by Sino Siberian chemical consortium has started, and it is planned to be put into commercial operation in 2026; The world's most powerful multi-purpose research fast reactor MBIR is also under construction; In addition, the reprocessing pilot plant has been able to produce qualified MOX fuel assemblies, which will gradually meet the needs of fast reactor MOX fuel. The Russian side predicts that the spent fuel processing capacity of Russian fast reactor for VVER unit will be 130 t/a before 2050 and 650 T/a before 2100

in addition, Russia is actively promoting the research and development of thermonuclear fusion reactor technology, and has determined the research and development direction of high temperature gas cooled reactor, thorium fuel cycle and salt fusion reactor. So far, the "breakthrough" plan is in full swing

determine the "dual" development strategy and lay out the future of nuclear power

at present, the commercial orders in Russia's international market are mainly VVER units with different power. Later, it will transition to the coexistence of thermal neutron reactor and fast neutron reactor. Russia's sodium cooled fast reactor will be closer to commercial application. By the middle of this century, the number of fast reactors will increase significantly, and nuclear power technology will show a diversified development trend

in order to implement the "one step ahead" and "dual" development strategy of nuclear energy technology, Russia is accelerating the construction of domestic fast reactor projects and the layout of the international market, hoping to continue to maintain its market competitive advantage and leading position in the field of fast reactor technology and closed fuel cycle

at present, the main task of Russia's dual nuclear strategy is to optimize and upgrade VVER technology and promote the industrial application of fast reactors

first, accelerate the implementation of commercial fast reactor projects. The construction of commercial fast reactor is the core component of Russia's dual development strategy. The Russian bn-600 prototype fast reactor and BN-800 commercial demonstration fast reactor units have been completed and put into operation in april1980 and october31,2016 respectively. In 2017, the power generation capacity of fast reactors reached a record 10.2 billion kWh (8.4 billion kwh in 2016), including 5.57 billion kwh of BN-800 units and 4.63 billion kwh of bn-600 units. At present, the bn-600 unit is preparing for the production of medical cobalt-60 isotopes, and the BN-800 plans to be completely replaced with uranium plutonium mixed fuel in 2019. Bn-1200 unit is a large-scale commercial fast reactor designed and developed on the basis of bn-600 and BN-800 which have been operated safely for more than 30 years. It pays more attention to the use of inherent safety and passive safety system. Its safety and economy meet the requirements of the fourth generation nuclear power system and will be constructed and operated in full accordance with the commercial standards. According to the Russian nuclear energy development plan, three bn-1200 fast reactor units will be built before 2035. At the beginning of 2018, Rosatom reported to President Putin that it plans to combine and promote thermal neutron reactor and fast reactor technology in the follow-up plan, and prepare to build the first 1200mW fast reactor unit in China after 2020

secondly, continuously optimize and upgrade VVER technology. VVER is the key nuclear power technology in Russia and the world in this century, and it is also the core technology to ensure the existence of Russia's global market. In order to seize the commanding height of the nuclear power market, Russia has lost no time in launching three generations of nuclear power technologies, vver-1000 and vver-1200 (aes-2006). With the help of a relatively complete government + commercial operation mode, Russia has entered the international market and won many nuclear power orders

2017, Rosatom approved VVER technology optimization plan and determined the priority development goals: first, based on vver-1200 construction and operation experience, transition to vver-toi technology and promote vver-toi

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